N-Acetylcysteine amide: A derivative to fulfill the promises of N-Acetylcysteine

Sunitha, K. and Hemshekhar, M. and Thushara, R. M. and Santhosh, M. S. and Yariswamy, M. and Kemparaju, K. and Girish, K. S. (2013) N-Acetylcysteine amide: A derivative to fulfill the promises of N-Acetylcysteine. Free Radical Research, 47 (5). pp. 357-367.

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Official URL: http://doi.org/10.3109/10715762.2013.781595

Abstract

In the present human health scenario, implication of oxidative stress in numerous pathologies including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, liver, renal, pulmonary disorders, and cancer has gained attention. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a popular thiol antioxidant, has been clinically used to treat various pathophysiological disorders. However, NAC therapy is routine only in paracetamol intoxication and as a mucolytic agent. Over six decades, numerous studies involving NAC therapy have yielded inconsistent results, and this could be due to low bioavailability. In order to overcome the limitations of NAC, an amide derivative N-Acetylcysteine amide (NACA) has been synthesized to improve the lipophilicity, membrane permeability, and antioxidant property. Recent studies have demonstrated the blood-brain barrier permeability and therapeutic potentials of NACA in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple sclerosis, Tardive dyskinesia, and HIV-associated neurological disorders. In addition, NACA displays protective effect against pulmonary inflammation and antibiotic-induced apoptosis. Forthcoming research on the possible therapeutic properties of NACA and its generics in the management of pathologies associated with extracellular matrix degradation and oxidative stress-related inflammation is highly exiting. Superior bioavailability of NACA is likely to fulfill the promises of NAC as well as a molecule to improve the endurance and resident time of bioscaffolds and biomaterials. Till date, more than 800 reviews on NAC have been published. However, no comprehensive review is available on the therapeutic applications of NACA. Therefore, the current review would be the first to emphasize the therapeutic potentials of NACA and its derivatives.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: human, nonhuman, 1, 2, unclassified drug, review, antioxidant, Antioxidants, enzyme activity, glutathione, Glutathione, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen metabolite, in vitro study, 3, lipophilicity, Humans, interleukin 13, interleukin 4, Cell Survival, Oxidative Stress, DNA fragmentation, alpha tocopherol, placebo, protein expression, vasculotropin, chronic obstructive lung disease, Reactive Oxygen Species, apoptosis, Apoptosis, cell death, protein Bax, signal transduction, density functional theory, haloperidol, cataract, ultraviolet spectroscopy, paracetamol, doxorubicin, heme oxygenase 1, Alzheimer disease, immunoglobulin enhancer binding protein, protein bcl 2, unindexed drug, lead, lung parenchyma, electrospray mass spectrometry, acetylcysteine, Acetylcysteine, hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha, blood brain barrier, phototoxicity, rotenone, mitogen activated protein kinase, Drug Therapy, Parkinson disease, pneumonia, amide, 6 tetrahydro 1 methyl 4 phenylpyridine, allergic encephalomyelitis, butylcresol, cell membrane permeability, CHO cell, CXCL1 chemokine, drug intoxication, heart muscle cell, highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV associated dementia, Human immunodeficiency virus infection, interleukin 5, membrane permeability, mitogen activated protein kinase 11, multiple sclerosis, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, n acetylcysteine amide, paralysis, phagocytosis, poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose), retina macula age related degeneration, tardive dyskinesia
Subjects: C Chemical Science > Biochemistry
Divisions: Department of > Biochemistry
Depositing User: Arshiya Kousar
Date Deposited: 12 Nov 2019 09:37
Last Modified: 12 Nov 2019 09:37
URI: http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/9624

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