Viper venom-induced oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory cytokines: A therapeutic approach for overlooked issues of snakebite management

Santhosh, M. S. and Sundaram, M. S. and Sunitha, K. and Kemparaju, K. and Girish, K. S. (2013) Viper venom-induced oxidative stress and activation of inflammatory cytokines: A therapeutic approach for overlooked issues of snakebite management. Inflammation Research, 62 (7). pp. 721-731. ISSN 1420-908X

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Official URL: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-013-0627-y

Abstract

Background and objective: The snakebite mortality rate has been significantly reduced due to effective anti-venin therapy. The intravenously infused anti-venom will neutralize free and target-bound toxins but fails to neutralize venom-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, as the antigen-antibody complex itself is pro-inflammatory. Therefore, an auxiliary therapy is necessary to treat secondary/overlooked envenomation complications. Materials and methods: Blood samples from healthy donors were treated with viper venom (100 μg/ml) for 2 h. The venom-induced inflammation, oxidative damage and effect of crocin pre-treatment were determined by assessing the serum levels of cytoplasmic, lysosomal and oxidative stress markers along with pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2. Results: Significantly increased stress markers, cytoplasmic, lysosomal and extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes as well as the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and COX-2 indicated increased cellular damage but significantly reduced oxidative damage and inflammation in crocin pre-treated groups. Conclusion: The data clearly suggest that venom-induced oxidative stress and inflammation is also responsible for oxidative burst and cell death in the circulation, which may worsen even after anti-venin therapy. Hence, the current study demands a supportive therapy in addition to anti-venin therapy to neutralize the overlooked issues of snakebite. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: article, human, controlled study, drug efficacy, lipid peroxidation, Antioxidants, Carotenoids, catalase, crocin, cyclooxygenase 2, Cytokines, enzyme activity, glutathione, Glutathione, hyaluronidase, Hyaluronoglucosaminidase, inflammation, interleukin 1beta, interleukin 6, oxidative stress, superoxide dismutase, Superoxide Dismutase, thiol, tumor necrosis factor alpha, drug mechanism, Humans, protein blood level, lactate dehydrogenase, Oxidative Stress, human cell, treatment response, enzyme blood level, L-Lactate Dehydrogenase, Reactive Oxygen Species, Serum, normal human, blood sampling, human experiment, cell damage, envenomation, viper venom, Viper Venoms, Glycoside Hydrolases, Snake Bites, Sulfhydryl Compounds, Catalase, cytokine production, Cyclooxygenase 2, Alkaline Phosphatase
Subjects: C Chemical Science > Biochemistry
Divisions: Department of > Biochemistry
Depositing User: Arshiya Kousar
Date Deposited: 16 Nov 2019 06:24
Last Modified: 16 Nov 2019 06:24
URI: http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/9590

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