Impact of anthropogenic activities on the chemistry and quality of groundwater: A case study from a terrain near Zarand City, Kerman Province, SE Iran

Moosavirad, S. M. and Janardhana, M. R. and Khairy, H. (2013) Impact of anthropogenic activities on the chemistry and quality of groundwater: A case study from a terrain near Zarand City, Kerman Province, SE Iran. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69 (7). pp. 2451-2467. ISSN 1866-6280

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Official URL: http://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2072-6

Abstract

Groundwater of an aquifer located in the vicinity of a large coal washery near Zarand City, Iran consists of two hydrochemically differing facies, which have been informally designated as groundwater (A) and groundwater (B). Groundwater (A) is native, brackish in composition and is characterized by Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > K+ and SO4 2- > HCO3 - > Cl- > NO3 -. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient matrices, factor analysis data, and values of chloro-alkaline indices, C ratio and Na+/Cl- molar ratio indicate that in the groundwater (A), the ionic load of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4 2- and HCO3 - is derived essentially from weathering of both carbonates and aluminosilicates and direct cation and reverse cation-anion exchange reactions. Groundwater (B) is the polluted variant of the groundwater (A), brackish to saline in composition, and unlike the groundwater (A), consists of HCO3 - as the dominant anion. In comparison with the groundwater (A), the groundwater (B) contains higher concentrations of all ions, and its average ionic load (av. = 59.74 me/L) is 1.43 times higher than that of the groundwater (A) (av. = 41.54 me/L). Additional concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, SO4 2-, Cl- and HCO3 - in the groundwater (B) are provided mainly by downward infiltrating water from the coal washery tailings pond and reverse cation-anion exchange reaction between tailings pond water and exchanger of the aquifer matrix during non-conservative mixing process of groundwater (A) and tailings pond water. Certain additional concentrations of Na+, K+ and NO3 - in the groundwater (B) are provided by other anthropogenic sources. Quality wise, both groundwaters are marginally suitable for cultivation of salt-tolerant crops only.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Alkalinity, Anthropogenic activity, Anthropogenic sources, aquifer pollution, Aquifers, Calcium, Chemical reactions, chemical weathering, Coal washery, concentration (composition), Exchange reaction, Groundwater, groundwater pollution, Groundwater pollution, Groundwater resources, human activity, In compositions, inorganic salt, ion exchange, Iran, Kerman Iran, metal, Positive ions, solute, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients, terrain, Water quality, Zarand, Zarand City
Subjects: F Earth Science > Geology
Divisions: Department of > Earth Science
Yuvaraj college > Earth Science
Depositing User: Arshiya Kousar
Date Deposited: 22 Oct 2019 05:42
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2019 05:42
URI: http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/9132

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