Hydrogeochemical features of groundwater of semi-confined coastal aquifer in Amol-Ghaemshahr plain, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

Khairy, H. and Janardhana, M. R. (2013) Hydrogeochemical features of groundwater of semi-confined coastal aquifer in Amol-Ghaemshahr plain, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185 (11). pp. 9237-9264. ISSN 1573-2959

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Official URL: http://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3248-6

Abstract

Hydrogeochemical data of groundwater from the semi-confined aquifer of a coastal two-tier aquifer in Amol-Ghaemshahr plain, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran reveal salinization of the fresh groundwater (FGW). The saline groundwater zone is oriented at an angle to both Caspian Sea coastline and groundwater flow direction and extends inland from the coastline for more than 40 km. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient matrices, factor analysis data, and values of C ratio, chloro-alkaline indices, and Na+/Cl- molar ratio indicate that the ionic load in the FGW is derived essentially from carbonic acid-aided weathering of carbonates and aluminosilicate minerals, relict connate saline water, and ion exchange reactions. Saline groundwater samples (SGWS) (n = 20) can be classified into two groups. SGWS of group 1 (n = 17) represent the saline groundwater zone below the Caspian Sea level, and salinization is attributed essentially to (1) lateral intrusion of Caspian seawater as a consequence of (a) excessive withdrawal of groundwater from closely spaced bore wells located in the eastern part of the coastal zone and (b) imbalance between recharge and discharge of the two-tier aquifer and (2) upconing of paleobrine (interfaced with FGW) along deep wells. SGWS of this group contain, on average, 7.9 % of saltwater, the composition of which is similar to that of Caspian seawater. SGWS of group 2 (n = 3) belong to the saline groundwater zone encountered above the Caspian Sea level, and salinization of the groundwater representing these samples is attributed to irrigation return flow (n = 2) and inflow of saline river water (n = 1). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: article, fresh water, physical chemistry, Groundwater, Iran, chemical composition, concentration (composition), Environmental Monitoring, water quality, Water Pollutants, Aquifers, coastal aquifer, Coastal aquifers, Groundwater geochemistry, Hydrochemistry, Mazandaran, salinity, water sampling, Chemical, coastal waters, aluminum silicate, carbonate, salinization, carbonic acid derivative, Amol, Carbon dioxide, Groundwater resources, Hydro geochemistries, ion exchange, Mazandaran provinces, Northern Iran, Sodium Chloride, aquifer, Caspian Sea, confined aquifer, correlation, geochemical analysis, ground water, groundwater flow, Groundwater flow, Groundwater-Seawater/ paleobrine interaction, Salinity, Sea level, seawater, Seawater, water analysis, water chemistry, water contamination, water flow, Water Movements
Subjects: F Earth Science > Geology
Divisions: Department of > Electronics
Depositing User: Arshiya Kousar
Date Deposited: 15 Oct 2019 07:12
Last Modified: 15 Oct 2019 07:12
URI: http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/8971

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