Hepatoprotective action of Orthosiphon diffusus (Benth.) methanol active fraction through antioxidant mechanisms: An in vivo and in vitro evaluation

Ghaffari, H. and Venkataramana, M. and Nayaka, S. C. and Ghassam, B. J. and Angaswamy, N. and Shekar, S. and Sampath Kumara, K. K. and Prakash, H. S. (2013) Hepatoprotective action of Orthosiphon diffusus (Benth.) methanol active fraction through antioxidant mechanisms: An in vivo and in vitro evaluation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 149 (3). pp. 737-744. ISSN 0378-8741

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Official URL: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.07.034

Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance Preparations of Orthosiphon diffusus (Benth.) have been used by folk medicinal practitioners in the Western Ghats of India for treating inflammation, hepatitis and jaundice for many years and their effectiveness is widely acclaimed among the tribal communities. Aim of the study To evaluate the mechanisms behind the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Orthosiphon diffusus methanol active fraction (MAF) using in vivo (rat) and in vitro (cell culture) models. Materials and methods Neutralization of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by MAF was evaluated in rats. Towards this, serum levels of hepatic injury markers (lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase), antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates, and histological examination were performed. In in vitro studies, mechanisms of neutralization of H2O2-induced toxicity by MAF using MTT, Comet assay and up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes at genetic level (RT-PCR) was performed in HepG2 cells. Results Rats pre-treated with Orthosiphon diffusus MAF demonstrated significantly reduced levels of serum LDH (1.3-fold, p<0.05) and ALP (1.6-fold, p<0.05). Similarly, multiple dose MAF administration demonstrated significantly enhanced levels (p<0.05) of antioxidant enzymes in the liver homogenates. Histological analysis revealed complete neutralization of CCl 4-induced liver injury by the extract. The in vitro studies demonstrated that, pre-treatment of MAF effectively prevented H 2O2-induced oxidative stress, genotoxicity and significantly enhanced ( 6-fold, p<0.01) expression of genes for antioxidant enzymes. Conclusions Orthosiphon diffusus MAF demonstrated significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by antioxidant mechanisms comparable to silymarin. H2O2-induced oxidative stress was completely neutralized by MAF through enhanced expression of genes for antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, this study validates the use of Orthosiphon diffusus by folk medicinal practitioners in India. Further, MAF of Orthosiphon diffusus can serve as a strong candidate for the development of herbal hepatoprotective agents.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: article, histopathology, human, male, animal experiment, animal model, controlled study, nonhuman, rat, antioxidant activity, plant extract, unclassified drug, medicinal plant, Animals, antioxidant, Antioxidants, Glutathione, hydrogen peroxide, Liver, liver protection, oxidative stress, Rats, Wistar, in vitro study, methanol, Humans, Male, alkaline phosphatase, Animal, Carbon Tetrachloride, cell strain HepG2, Cell Survival, Disease Models, Drug-Induced Liver Injury, lactate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase blood level, liver injury, Oxidative Stress, Plant Extracts, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, genotoxicity, in vivo study, human cell, Methanol, upregulation, liver toxicity, silymarin, Rattus, Silymarin, cell viability, single drug dose, gene expression, blood sampling, Hep G2 Cells, comet assay, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase, SOD, carbon tetrachloride, Aerial, Plant Components, MAF, Alkaline phosphatase, ALP, Carbon tetrachloride, CAT, CCl(4), CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity, cell culture, Glutathione-s-transferase, GPx, GSH, GST, H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, Hepatoprotective, HepG2, Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, Lactate dehydrogenase, LDH, liver homogenate, MD, Methanol active fraction, Multiple dose, Orthosiphon, Orthosiphon diffuses, Orthosiphon diffusus, Orthosiphon diffusus extract, SD, Single dose, Superoxide dismutase
Subjects: B Life Science > Biotechnology
Divisions: Department of > Biotechnology
Depositing User: Arshiya Kousar
Date Deposited: 20 Sep 2019 06:41
Last Modified: 20 Sep 2019 06:41
URI: http://eprints.uni-mysore.ac.in/id/eprint/7957

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