Resistance to downy mildew in pearl millet is associated with increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity

Geetha, N. P. and Amruthesh, K. N. and Sharathchandra, R. G. and Shetty, H. S. (2005) Resistance to downy mildew in pearl millet is associated with increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity. Functional Plant Biology, 32 (2). pp. 267-275. ISSN 1445-4416

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Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity was studied in pearl millet cultivars with different levels of resistance to the downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola, an important oomycete pathogen. PAL activity was elevated in resistant host cultivar and decreased in susceptible cultivars following downy mildew pathogen infection. The enzyme activation varied between cultivars and was correlated with the degree of resistance to downy mildew disease. The induction of PAL as a response to pathogen inoculation was further corroborated by a time-course study in seedlings and cultured cells of pearl millet. The level of PAL activity was highest at 1.5 h in cultured cells and 4 h in seedlings of resistant host cultivar after inoculation with Sclerospora graminicola. Further studies on PAL activity in different tissues of seedlings showed highest enzyme activity in the young growing region of the root of the resistant host cultivars. The accumulation of wall-bound phenolics and lignin was higher in the resistant cultivar seedlings as evidenced by phloroglucinol–HCl staining and p-coumaric acid assay. The temporal changes in lignin concentration and the concentration of soluble phenolics were greater in root tissues of resistant cultivars than in those of susceptible cultivars. Treatment of resistant seedlings with a PAL inhibitor, α-aminooxy-β-phenylpropionic acid, resulted in the enhancement of the enzyme activity, whereas in the presence of 1 mm trans-cinnamic acid the pathogen-induced PAL was completely inhibited. Treatment of pearl millet seedlings with exogenously applied PAL inhibitors induced downy mildew disease susceptibility in the resistant pearl millet cultivar, consistent with direct involvement of PAL in downy mildew resistance. Results are discussed with respect to the presumed importance of host phenolic compounds and lignin accumulation and its relation to PAL activation as a response to the pathogen infection.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: B Life Science > Biotechnology
Divisions: Department of > Biotechnology
Depositing User: Manjula P Library Assistant
Date Deposited: 09 Sep 2019 10:02
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2019 10:02

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