An analysis of international labour migration with gravity model between India and other Asian Countries

Madhu, G. R and Uma, H. R (2015) An analysis of international labour migration with gravity model between India and other Asian Countries. Journal of Media and Social Development, 3 (1). pp. 53-68. ISSN 2320-8244

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Migration has always been a significant phenomenon across SouthAsia. The historic ties that link the various populations across theregion, accentuated by the modern day dynamics of migration hasgiven rise to multiple forms of population movement ranging fromvoluntary to involuntary, internal to external, long-term to temporary.This paper examines the flow of international labour migration toAsian countries and this study is based on secondary data. Secondarydata has been collected from different sources for selected years 1990,2000, 2010 and 2103. GDP per capita (US$), population data takenfrom the World Bank’s World Development Indicators (WDI). TheUNCTAD’s dataset provides the nominal exchange rates in US$ ofsource and destination countries. Distance between capital cities (inkm) data collected from the CEPII’s database. The data on religionwas obtained from the World Religion Map. Official language data ofthe sample countries were collected from the Central IntelligenceAgency’s (CIA) the World Fact Book. The study found that over theyears, emigration from India to other Asian countries is on the increaseand immigration to India is decreasing. Another finding of the studyis there is gender discriminatory trend in the labour migration amongAsian countries. There are many reasons for this trend and some are;political instability in some of the neighbouring countries, religion iscrimination in receiving countries and migration policies of thereceiving countries. Gender discriminatory trend in the immigrationto India from Asian countries is much less compared to emigrationfrom India.Many push and pull factors are playing a significant role inemigration and immigration. This study applies the gravity model asthe empirical tool to ascertain the determinants of emigration andimmigration decision from and to India. Both emigration andimmigration model includes nine variables. In this gravity model forimmigration to India, except GDP of the destination country,remaining variables like population of the destination and origincountry , exchange rate of origin and destination countries , religion,block and distance are significant .IN the Gravity model for emigrationfrom India to other Asian countries, population of the destinationcountries, GDP per capita of the destination countries, exchangerate of destination countries ,distance between origin and destinationcountries , religion of the destination countries and block aresignificant.. These are some of the determinants of the internationalmigration. Remittance is one of the important sources for many Asiancountries including India which receives 4 % of GDP per capita fromthe international remittance. Migration is very useful for resourcemobilization to developing and under developed countries. Anotheradvantage of migration is reducing unemployment rate, exchange ofskills etc. Migration is one of the powerful tools in the developmentprocess.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Immigration, emigration, migrant
Subjects: A Arts and Humanities > Journalism and Mass Media Communication
Divisions: Department of > Economics and Cooperation
Depositing User: Dr Raju C
Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2021 11:45
Last Modified: 26 Feb 2021 11:45

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