Melatonin restores neutrophil functions and prevents apoptosis amid dysfunctional glutathione redox system

Naveen Kumar, S. K. and Hemshekhar, M. and Jagadish, Swamy and Manikanta, K. and Vishalakshi, G. J. and Kemparaju, K. and Girish, K. S. (2020) Melatonin restores neutrophil functions and prevents apoptosis amid dysfunctional glutathione redox system. Journal of Pineal Research, 69 (3). ISSN 1600-079X

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Melatonin is a chronobiotic hormone, which can regulate human diseases like cancer, atherosclerosis, respiratory disorders, and microbial infections by regulating redox system. Melatonin exhibits innate immunomodulation by communicating with immune system and influencing neutrophils to fight infections and inflammation. However, sustaining redox homeostasis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in neutrophils are critical during chemotaxis, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Therefore, endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH) redox cycle is highly vital in regulating neutrophil functions. Reduced intracellular GSH levels and glutathione reductase (GR) activity in the neutrophils during clinical conditions like autoimmune disorders, neurological disorders, diabetes, and microbial infections lead to dysfunctional neutrophils. Therefore, we hypothesized that redox modulators like melatonin can protect neutrophil health and functions under GSH and GR activity-deficient conditions. We demonstrate the dual role of melatonin, wherein it protects neutrophils from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis by reducing ROS generation; in contrast, it restores neutrophil functions like phagocytosis, degranulation, and NETosis in GSH and GR activity-deficient neutrophils by regulating ROS levels both in vitro and in vivo. Melatonin mitigates LPS-induced neutrophil dysfunctions by rejuvenating GSH redox system, specifically GR activity by acting as a parallel redox system. Our results indicate that melatonin could be a potential auxiliary therapy to treat immune dysfunction and microbial infections, including virus, under chronic disease conditions by restoring neutrophil functions. Further, melatonin could be a promising immune system booster to fight unprecedented pandemics like the current COVID-19. However, further studies are indispensable to address the clinical usage of melatonin.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: C Chemical Science > Biochemistry
Divisions: Department of > Biochemistry
Depositing User: Mr Umendra uom
Date Deposited: 05 Mar 2021 05:42
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2023 06:58

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